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生物多样性与食物系统转型展望

章佩琳 张媛 李鹏宇 胡悦 朱春全

章佩琳, 张媛, 李鹏宇, 等. 生物多样性与食物系统转型展望[J]. 自然保护地,2022,2(2):22−34 doi:  10.12335/2096-8981.2022021501
引用本文: 章佩琳, 张媛, 李鹏宇, 等. 生物多样性与食物系统转型展望[J]. 自然保护地,2022,2(2):22−34 doi:  10.12335/2096-8981.2022021501
ZHANG Peilin, ZHANG Yuan, LI Pengyu, et al. Biodiversity and Food System Transition Outlook[J]. Natural Protected Areas, 2022, 2(2): 22−34 doi:  10.12335/2096-8981.2022021501
Citation: ZHANG Peilin, ZHANG Yuan, LI Pengyu, et al. Biodiversity and Food System Transition Outlook[J]. Natural Protected Areas, 2022, 2(2): 22−34 doi:  10.12335/2096-8981.2022021501

生物多样性与食物系统转型展望

doi: 10.12335/2096-8981.2022021501
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    E-mail:chunquan,zhu@weforum.org

  • 另有一种说法为4 800万km2(资料来源:FAO. World Food and Agriculture - Statistical Yearbook 2021. 2021, P3. https://doi.org/10.4060/cb4477en)。
  • 另一种说法为,2020年全球森林面积约为4 000万 km2,约占陆地面积的30%(资料来源:FAO. 世界粮食和农业领域土地及水资源状况:系统濒临极限[R/OL]. (2021-12-09)[2021-12-25]. https://doi.org/10.4060/cb7654zh)。
  • 约2 940亿美元以价格激励的形式提供,约2 450亿美元用于对农民的财政补贴,其中70%投入于与特定农产品生产,仅有1 100亿美元(约20%)用于向农业部门提供公共服务。
  • 《领导人的自然宣言》包括以下十项:1)支持雄心勃勃且具有变革性的2020后全球生物多样性框架;2)采取综合行动应对相互关联的环境挑战;3)将生物多样性纳入政府和部门的主流;4)过渡到可持续的生产和消费方式以及可持续的粮食系统;5)减少对土地,水和空气的污染;6)可持续管理我们的海洋;7)推进同一健康(One Health)以应对相互交错的生态、气候、健康危机;8)共同将生物多样性,气候和环境作为COVID恢复战略的核心,并促进绿色和韧性复苏;9)加强资源调动(对生物多样性和基于自然的解决方案提供更多支持,包括取消对生态自然有害的投资和补贴,使资金流与环境承诺和可持续发展目标保持一致);10)支持更高的气候变化领域里的雄心目标和行动。
  • 中图分类号: X37

Biodiversity and Food System Transition Outlook

  • 摘要: 生物多样性对食物系统至关重要,而当前食物系统的运作模式加剧了生物多样性的丧失。在剖析当前全球生物多样性丧失趋势的基础上,本文以生物多样性和生态系统服务政府间科学政策平台(IPBES)提出的生物多样性丧失的五大驱动因素为框架,系统地梳理了食物系统威胁生物多样性的原因,并提出更深层次的原因是食物系统的各利益相关方并未将自然的价值纳入考虑,各方缺乏共同目标,且缺少凝聚各方行动的动力与合作机制。因此,本文结合联合国可持续发展议程、全球食物系统和生物多样性治理进展,提出食物系统的自然受益型转型目标和12个行动方向,以期支持政府、行业、企业等各方形成共识,并加快制定相关政策或战略。最后,本文从政策、资金和技术3个层面阐述食物系统转型的要点及机遇,倡议各方联合起来积极行动、抓住时机,实现食物系统变革。
    1)  另有一种说法为4 800万km2(资料来源:FAO. World Food and Agriculture - Statistical Yearbook 2021. 2021, P3. https://doi.org/10.4060/cb4477en)。
    2)  另一种说法为,2020年全球森林面积约为4 000万 km2,约占陆地面积的30%(资料来源:FAO. 世界粮食和农业领域土地及水资源状况:系统濒临极限[R/OL]. (2021-12-09)[2021-12-25]. https://doi.org/10.4060/cb7654zh)。
    3)  约2 940亿美元以价格激励的形式提供,约2 450亿美元用于对农民的财政补贴,其中70%投入于与特定农产品生产,仅有1 100亿美元(约20%)用于向农业部门提供公共服务。
    4)  《领导人的自然宣言》包括以下十项:1)支持雄心勃勃且具有变革性的2020后全球生物多样性框架;2)采取综合行动应对相互关联的环境挑战;3)将生物多样性纳入政府和部门的主流;4)过渡到可持续的生产和消费方式以及可持续的粮食系统;5)减少对土地,水和空气的污染;6)可持续管理我们的海洋;7)推进同一健康(One Health)以应对相互交错的生态、气候、健康危机;8)共同将生物多样性,气候和环境作为COVID恢复战略的核心,并促进绿色和韧性复苏;9)加强资源调动(对生物多样性和基于自然的解决方案提供更多支持,包括取消对生态自然有害的投资和补贴,使资金流与环境承诺和可持续发展目标保持一致);10)支持更高的气候变化领域里的雄心目标和行动。
  • 图  1  全球哺乳类和鸟类的生物量分布及占比[10]

    Figure  1.  Biomass distribution and proportion of mammals and birds in the world

    图  2  全球食物生产的土地利用情况[57]

    Figure  2.  Land use for global food production

    图  3  食物系统对生物多样性的影响

    Figure  3.  Impact of food system on biodiversity

    表  1  2007—2016年食物系统年均温室气体(GHG)排放量[58]

    Table  1.   Average annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of food system from 2007 to 2016

    类别排放量(GtCO2eq/a)
    来自土地转化 4.9±2.5
    来自反刍动物和土壤的甲烷 4.0±1.2
    来自化肥、禽畜粪便的氧化亚氮 2.2±0.7
    来自运输、加工、烹调等 2.4~4.8
    全球食物系统GHG排放总量 15.0(10.6~19.4)
    全球GHG排放总量 52.0±4.5
    占比 28.9(20.4~37.3)%
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  食物系统自然受益型转型目标和行动方向

    Table  2.   Objectives and action directions of natural benefit transformation of the food system

    序号2030年行动方向出处
    1 修复20%退化中的淡水、海洋和陆地生态系统 GBF-2
    SDG-6.6/14.2/15.1-5
    2 保护全球30%的陆地和海洋生态系统 GBF-3
    SDG-6.6/SDG-14.1/14.3/14.5/15.1-5
    3 恢复和保护野生及驯化物种的物种和遗传多样性 GBF-4
    SDG-2.5/2.6
    4 实践合法、可持续、安全的野生生物资源的采集、贸易活动 GBF-5
    SDG-2.b/12.2/12.3/14.4/15.7/15.c
    5 降低50%外来入侵物种的引进率和定居率,控制和根除外来入侵物种 GBF-6
    SDG-15.8
    6 减少50%的营养物质、2/3的农药流入自然生态系统并消除塑料污染 GBF-7
    SDG-3.9/6.3/11.6/12.4
    7 采用基于自然的解决方案,每年减少100亿t二氧化碳排放当量 GBF-8
    SDG-13.2
    8 可持续管理农业、水产养殖业和林业 GBF-10
    SDG-6.4/8.4/8.9
    9 在政策、法规、规划、核算和评估等过程中将生物多样性纳入考虑 GBF-14
    SDG-11.a/15.9/15.a/15.b
    10 在所有企业中开展生物多样性依赖度和影响相关评估,并逐步减少对自然的负面影响 GBF-15
    SDG-12.6
    11 鼓励相关生产信息的披露和负责任的消费 GBF-16
    SDG-4.7/12.6/12.8
    12 每年改革或取消5000亿美元的有害补贴 GBF-18
    SDG-12.c/14.6
    注:①《2030年可持续发展议程》中的17个目标和196个子目标用“SDG-x.x”标注;②《2020年后全球生物多样性框架》初稿中的21个目标用“GBF-x”标注(x表示数字)。
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-02-15
  • 录用日期:  2022-05-07
  • 修回日期:  2022-05-01
  • 刊出日期:  2022-05-31

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